Red Hat / CentOS specific question about certificates

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Red Hat / CentOS specific question about certificates

Darryl Philip Baker
I am having an issue that I don’t understand.  On RHEL6/CentOS and earlier my predecessors would put self-signed certificates they wanted to trust in /etc/pki/ca-trust/extracted/java/cacerts and it was good for the life of the machine. On RHEL7 and I assume CentOS7 that file is part of a package that is getting updated as part of the regular patches. That wipes out our self-signed certificates. The way I understand the directions from Red Hat we should put the certificate in pem format in the directory /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors and run update-ca-trust extract and that will update the all the appropriate files. Including the cacerts file. That does not seem to happen. What is the proper way of handling self-signed certificates you want tomcat to trust?

Off topic but you are folks who might know:
On a related note I have the same issue with Java applications not running in Tomcat that use the same file /etc/pki….java/cacerts. Am I understanding the PKI update process correctly? Am I putting the self-signed certificate pem format file in the correct place?

Darryl Baker, GSEC  (he/him/his)
Sr. System Administrator
Distributed Application Platform Services
Northwestern University
1800 Sherman Ave.
Suite 6-600 – Box #39
Evanston, IL  60201-3715
[hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]>
(847) 467-6674

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Re: Red Hat / CentOS specific question about certificates

Daniel Savard
Le ven. 28 août 2020 à 17:19, Darryl Philip Baker <
[hidden email]> a écrit :

> I am having an issue that I don’t understand.  On RHEL6/CentOS and earlier
> my predecessors would put self-signed certificates they wanted to trust in
> /etc/pki/ca-trust/extracted/java/cacerts and it was good for the life of
> the machine. On RHEL7 and I assume CentOS7 that file is part of a package
> that is getting updated as part of the regular patches. That wipes out our
> self-signed certificates. The way I understand the directions from Red Hat
> we should put the certificate in pem format in the directory
> /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors and run update-ca-trust extract and that
> will update the all the appropriate files. Including the cacerts file. That
> does not seem to happen. What is the proper way of handling self-signed
> certificates you want tomcat to trust?
>
> Off topic but you are folks who might know:
> On a related note I have the same issue with Java applications not running
> in Tomcat that use the same file /etc/pki….java/cacerts. Am I understanding
> the PKI update process correctly? Am I putting the self-signed certificate
> pem format file in the correct place?
>
> Darryl Baker, GSEC  (he/him/his)
> Sr. System Administrator
> (...)
>
>
You can put your certificates and truststore wherever you want as long as
you tell Tomcat where they are in the conf/server.xml configuration file
when you configure the connector using them. Self-signed certificates
should never be used on a production server, they are not secure. It is up
to you to handle the certificates when they expire unless you have some
other automated way to renew them. Normally, the cacerts file distributed
with Java is a JKS formatted trust store and the certificates it contains
will eventually expire. That's why when Java is updated you may get an
updated cacerts file as well. If you put your own certificates in that file
and it gets updated when Java is updated, obviously you will lost your
certificates. Just make a copy and put your certificates in the copy. In
fact, you may not need the original file at all if only self-signed
certificates are involved. All the certifications authorities in the file
are then useless to you.

Regards,
-----------------
Daniel Savard
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Re: Red Hat / CentOS specific question about certificates

Darryl Philip Baker
I will argue that you can use self-signed certificates in production if and only if you own and fully control both servers engaged in transaction as well as all of the connection fabric between the servers. If these conditions are true and someone can execute a man-in-middle attack, I will assert that your environment are already so compromised the attack is almost meaningless. On the other hand, using a self-signed certificate with an expiry of greater than 398 days in a situation as this means that you can free up people's time to do other work other than maintaining a hidden certificate. And setting up automation to renew said certificate such as this, adds an increased level of complexity as well as an additional point of failure to the equation.


Darryl Baker, GSEC  (he/him/his)
Sr. System Administrator
Distributed Application Platform Services
Northwestern University
1800 Sherman Ave.
Suite 6-600 – Box #39
Evanston, IL  60201-3715
[hidden email]
(847) 467-6674
 

On 8/28/20, 7:47 PM, "Daniel Savard" <[hidden email]> wrote:

    Le ven. 28 août 2020 à 17:19, Darryl Philip Baker <
    [hidden email]> a écrit :

    > I am having an issue that I don’t understand.  On RHEL6/CentOS and earlier
    > my predecessors would put self-signed certificates they wanted to trust in
    > /etc/pki/ca-trust/extracted/java/cacerts and it was good for the life of
    > the machine. On RHEL7 and I assume CentOS7 that file is part of a package
    > that is getting updated as part of the regular patches. That wipes out our
    > self-signed certificates. The way I understand the directions from Red Hat
    > we should put the certificate in pem format in the directory
    > /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors and run update-ca-trust extract and that
    > will update the all the appropriate files. Including the cacerts file. That
    > does not seem to happen. What is the proper way of handling self-signed
    > certificates you want tomcat to trust?
    >
    > Off topic but you are folks who might know:
    > On a related note I have the same issue with Java applications not running
    > in Tomcat that use the same file /etc/pki….java/cacerts. Am I understanding
    > the PKI update process correctly? Am I putting the self-signed certificate
    > pem format file in the correct place?
    >
    > Darryl Baker, GSEC  (he/him/his)
    > Sr. System Administrator
    > (...)
    >
    >
    You can put your certificates and truststore wherever you want as long as
    you tell Tomcat where they are in the conf/server.xml configuration file
    when you configure the connector using them. Self-signed certificates
    should never be used on a production server, they are not secure. It is up
    to you to handle the certificates when they expire unless you have some
    other automated way to renew them. Normally, the cacerts file distributed
    with Java is a JKS formatted trust store and the certificates it contains
    will eventually expire. That's why when Java is updated you may get an
    updated cacerts file as well. If you put your own certificates in that file
    and it gets updated when Java is updated, obviously you will lost your
    certificates. Just make a copy and put your certificates in the copy. In
    fact, you may not need the original file at all if only self-signed
    certificates are involved. All the certifications authorities in the file
    are then useless to you.

    Regards,
    -----------------
    Daniel Savard


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Re: Red Hat / CentOS specific question about certificates

Daniel Savard
Le sam. 29 août 2020 à 09:05, Darryl Philip Baker <
[hidden email]> a écrit :

> I will argue that you can use self-signed certificates in production if
> and only if you own and fully control both servers engaged in transaction
> as well as all of the connection fabric between the servers. If these
> conditions are true and someone can execute a man-in-middle attack, I will
> assert that your environment are already so compromised the attack is
> almost meaningless. On the other hand, using a self-signed certificate with
> an expiry of greater than 398 days in a situation as this means that you
> can free up people's time to do other work other than maintaining a hidden
> certificate. And setting up automation to renew said certificate such as
> this, adds an increased level of complexity as well as an additional point
> of failure to the equation.
>
>
> Darryl Baker, GSEC  (he/him/his)
> Sr. System Administrator
> (...)


It all depends on the size of your environment and how you use Tomcat.
Having over 30 servers and thousands of users, self-signed certificates
cannot just be a solution. You have to have each self-signed certificate on
each client accessing the environment to override the security warning
message (in fact, I am not sure it will even go away). Telling your users
to ignore the warning is just not the thing to do since next time they see
the message in another context they may just accept the insecure
connection. And with over 30 servers, automation makes sense for me. Even
for people without the expertise, the Let's Encrypt Certificate Authority
provides short life certificates that are replaced automatically and it
works fine. Getting a properly signed certificate these days is not the
hassle it was, in fact it may just be easier than issuing a self-signed
certificate.

Anyway, it is up to you to decide what you want and if your question is
finally just about what RedHat is doing with that file, you may be better
served on a RedHat discussion list since it ends up being a RedHat only
question having nothing to do with Tomcat itself. From the Tomcat point of
view, you can only copy the file somewhere else where the RedHat scripts,
update procedures will not touch it and let Tomcat know where it is.

Regards,
-----------------
Daniel Savard
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Re: [OT] Red Hat / CentOS specific question about certificates

Christopher Schultz-2
In reply to this post by Daniel Savard
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----
Hash: SHA256


Daniel,

On 8/28/20 20:46, Daniel Savard wrote:

> Le ven. 28 août 2020 à 17:19, Darryl Philip Baker <
> [hidden email]> a écrit :
>
>> I am having an issue that I don’t understand.  On RHEL6/CentOS
>> and earlier my predecessors would put self-signed certificates
>> they wanted to trust in /etc/pki/ca-trust/extracted/java/cacerts
>> and it was good for the life of the machine. On RHEL7 and I
>> assume CentOS7 that file is part of a package that is getting
>> updated as part of the regular patches. That wipes out our
>> self-signed certificates. The way I understand the directions
>> from Red Hat we should put the certificate in pem format in the
>> directory /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors and run
>> update-ca-trust extract and that will update the all the
>> appropriate files. Including the cacerts file. That does not seem
>> to happen. What is the proper way of handling self-signed
>> certificates you want tomcat to trust?
>>
>> Off topic but you are folks who might know: On a related note I
>> have the same issue with Java applications not running in Tomcat
>> that use the same file /etc/pki….java/cacerts. Am I
>> understanding the PKI update process correctly? Am I putting the
>> self-signed certificate pem format file in the correct place?
>>
>> Darryl Baker, GSEC  (he/him/his) Sr. System Administrator (...)
>>
>>
> You can put your certificates and truststore wherever you want as
> long as you tell Tomcat where they are in the conf/server.xml
> configuration file when you configure the connector using them.
>
> Self-signed certificates should never be used on a production
> server, they are not secure.
What makes you say that?

- -chris
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Re: [OT] Red Hat / CentOS specific question about certificates

Daniel Savard
Le lun. 31 août 2020 à 11:13, Christopher Schultz <
[hidden email]> a écrit :

> -----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----
> Hash: SHA256
>
>
> Daniel,
>
> On 8/28/20 20:46, Daniel Savard wrote:
> > Le ven. 28 août 2020 à 17:19, Darryl Philip Baker <
> > [hidden email]> a écrit :
> >
> >> I am having an issue that I don’t understand.  On RHEL6/CentOS
> >> and earlier my predecessors would put self-signed certificates
> >> they wanted to trust in /etc/pki/ca-trust/extracted/java/cacerts
> >> and it was good for the life of the machine. On RHEL7 and I
> >> assume CentOS7 that file is part of a package that is getting
> >> updated as part of the regular patches. That wipes out our
> >> self-signed certificates. The way I understand the directions
> >> from Red Hat we should put the certificate in pem format in the
> >> directory /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors and run
> >> update-ca-trust extract and that will update the all the
> >> appropriate files. Including the cacerts file. That does not seem
> >> to happen. What is the proper way of handling self-signed
> >> certificates you want tomcat to trust?
> >>
> >> Off topic but you are folks who might know: On a related note I
> >> have the same issue with Java applications not running in Tomcat
> >> that use the same file /etc/pki….java/cacerts. Am I
> >> understanding the PKI update process correctly? Am I putting the
> >> self-signed certificate pem format file in the correct place?
> >>
> >> Darryl Baker, GSEC  (he/him/his) Sr. System Administrator (...)
> >>
> >>
> > You can put your certificates and truststore wherever you want as
> > long as you tell Tomcat where they are in the conf/server.xml
> > configuration file when you configure the connector using them.
> >
> > Self-signed certificates should never be used on a production
> > server, they are not secure.
> What makes you say that?
>
> - -chris
> (...)



https://www.venafi.com/blog/self-signed-certificates-cyber-criminals-are-turning-strength-into-a-vulnerability


Never may be exaggerated in my post. But in general, you should avoid them.
But it all depends on your organization as well, mine is signing internal
certificates and managing to include itself in the browsers of all the
thousands employees. In a small business, it may not be possible and the
number of self-signed certificates may be low. In our organization, in the
past we have seen people setting up their own self-signed certificates with
too short keys to be secured by today's standards.

Regards,
-----------------
Daniel Savard
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Re: [OT] Red Hat / CentOS specific question about certificates

Christopher Schultz-2
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----
Hash: SHA256

Daniel,

On 8/31/20 11:36, Daniel Savard wrote:

> Le lun. 31 août 2020 à 11:13, Christopher Schultz <
> [hidden email]> a écrit :
>
>> -----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- Hash: SHA256
>>
>>
>> Daniel,
>>
>> On 8/28/20 20:46, Daniel Savard wrote:
>>> Le ven. 28 août 2020 à 17:19, Darryl Philip Baker <
>>> [hidden email]> a écrit :
>>>
>>>> I am having an issue that I don’t understand.  On
>>>> RHEL6/CentOS and earlier my predecessors would put
>>>> self-signed certificates they wanted to trust in
>>>> /etc/pki/ca-trust/extracted/java/cacerts and it was good for
>>>> the life of the machine. On RHEL7 and I assume CentOS7 that
>>>> file is part of a package that is getting updated as part of
>>>> the regular patches. That wipes out our self-signed
>>>> certificates. The way I understand the directions from Red
>>>> Hat we should put the certificate in pem format in the
>>>> directory /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors and run
>>>> update-ca-trust extract and that will update the all the
>>>> appropriate files. Including the cacerts file. That does not
>>>> seem to happen. What is the proper way of handling
>>>> self-signed certificates you want tomcat to trust?
>>>>
>>>> Off topic but you are folks who might know: On a related note
>>>> I have the same issue with Java applications not running in
>>>> Tomcat that use the same file /etc/pki….java/cacerts. Am I
>>>> understanding the PKI update process correctly? Am I putting
>>>> the self-signed certificate pem format file in the correct
>>>> place?
>>>>
>>>> Darryl Baker, GSEC  (he/him/his) Sr. System Administrator
>>>> (...)
>>>>
>>>>
>>> You can put your certificates and truststore wherever you want
>>> as long as you tell Tomcat where they are in the
>>> conf/server.xml configuration file when you configure the
>>> connector using them.
>>>
>>> Self-signed certificates should never be used on a production
>>> server, they are not secure.
>> What makes you say that?
>>
>> - -chris (...)
>
>
>
> https://www.venafi.com/blog/self-signed-certificates-cyber-criminals-a
re-turning-strength-into-a-vulnerability

This
>
article is talking about securing miscreants' communications. It
really has nothing to do with self-signed certificates. It has to do
with users blindly "trusting" anything which claims to be trustworthy
just because it's encrypted.

Self-signed certificates by definition are not signed by a CA, so they
are not globally-trusted (or even semi-globally-trusted). "Trusting
All" certificates is a terrible mistake and the only way that
self-signed certificates can be a problem, whether used on an
"internal" network or exposed to the outside network.

> Never may be exaggerated in my post. But in general, you should
> avoid them.
Meh.

> But it all depends on your organization as well, mine is signing
> internal certificates and managing to include itself in the
> browsers of all the thousands employees.
This is a good technique IMO.

> In a small business, it may not be possible and the number of
> self-signed certificates may be low. In our organization, in the
> past we have seen people setting up their own self-signed
> certificates with too short keys to be secured by today's
> standards.
Well, that's obviously a mistake.

Especially if you aren't talking about browser-trust, I think
self-signed (or local-CA-signed) certificates are a good thing.
Services ought to be individually-trusting service certificates and
not even accepting all globally-recognized CAs because a compromised
CA or middle-box can intercept communications without a problem.

Self-signed certificates offer isolation from CAs and can therefore be
*more* secure for service-level certificates precisely because they
require special deployment.

- -chris
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Re: [OT] Red Hat / CentOS specific question about certificates

Christopher Schultz-2
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----
Hash: SHA256

Daniel,

On 8/31/20 16:28, Christopher Schultz wrote:

> Daniel,
>
> On 8/31/20 11:36, Daniel Savard wrote:
>> Le lun. 31 août 2020 à 11:13, Christopher Schultz <
>> [hidden email]> a écrit :
>
>>> -----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE----- Hash: SHA256
>>>
>>>
>>> Daniel,
>>>
>>> On 8/28/20 20:46, Daniel Savard wrote:
>>>> Le ven. 28 août 2020 à 17:19, Darryl Philip Baker <
>>>> [hidden email]> a écrit :
>>>>
>>>>> I am having an issue that I don’t understand.  On
>>>>> RHEL6/CentOS and earlier my predecessors would put
>>>>> self-signed certificates they wanted to trust in
>>>>> /etc/pki/ca-trust/extracted/java/cacerts and it was good
>>>>> for the life of the machine. On RHEL7 and I assume CentOS7
>>>>> that file is part of a package that is getting updated as
>>>>> part of the regular patches. That wipes out our
>>>>> self-signed certificates. The way I understand the
>>>>> directions from Red Hat we should put the certificate in
>>>>> pem format in the directory
>>>>> /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors and run update-ca-trust
>>>>> extract and that will update the all the appropriate files.
>>>>> Including the cacerts file. That does not seem to happen.
>>>>> What is the proper way of handling self-signed certificates
>>>>> you want tomcat to trust?
>>>>>
>>>>> Off topic but you are folks who might know: On a related
>>>>> note I have the same issue with Java applications not
>>>>> running in Tomcat that use the same file
>>>>> /etc/pki….java/cacerts. Am I understanding the PKI update
>>>>> process correctly? Am I putting the self-signed certificate
>>>>> pem format file in the correct place?
>>>>>
>>>>> Darryl Baker, GSEC  (he/him/his) Sr. System Administrator
>>>>> (...)
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>> You can put your certificates and truststore wherever you
>>>> want as long as you tell Tomcat where they are in the
>>>> conf/server.xml configuration file when you configure the
>>>> connector using them.
>>>>
>>>> Self-signed certificates should never be used on a
>>>> production server, they are not secure.
>>> What makes you say that?
>>>
>>> - -chris (...)
>
>
>
>> https://www.venafi.com/blog/self-signed-certificates-cyber-criminals-
a
>
>>
re-turning-strength-into-a-vulnerability
>
> This
>
> article is talking about securing miscreants' communications. It
> really has nothing to do with self-signed certificates. It has to
> do with users blindly "trusting" anything which claims to be
> trustworthy just because it's encrypted.

I've re-read this article and also read their linked article on
Heartbleed, and I have come to the conclusion that the writers do not
have any clue what they are talking about.

- -chris
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